1. Sample Text 1

The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of nature’s underappreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat. For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilizes it with his manure. In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which single-stomached creatures like us can’t digest—into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass. Living their unseen lives at the far end of the food chain that culminates in a hamburger, these bacteria have,justlike the grasses, coevolved with the cow, whom they feed. Truly this is an excellent system for all concerned: for the grasses, for the bacteria, for the animals, and for us, the animals’ eaters.

There is a co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass as the cows, which is one of the ruminants that has rumen to digest the grass into high quality protein even though the grasses already evolved to against the grazing of ruminants, can help the grass spread seed by their hooves and also provide manure to it.

Sample Answer

 There is a co-evolutionary relationship among cows, grass and bacteria as cows have rumen where bacteria could digest grass into high quality protein while they help the grass spread seed by their hooves and also provide manure to it.


2. Sample Text 2

By far the most popular and most consumed drink in the world is water, but it may come as no surprise that the second most popular beverage is tea. Although tea was originally grown only in certain parts of Asia – in countries such as China, Burma and India – it is now a key export product in more than 50 countries around the globe. Countries that grow tea, however, need to have the right tropical climate. which includes up to 200 centimeters of rainfall per year to encourage fast growth. and temperatures that range from ten to 35 degrees centigrade. They also need to have quite specific geographical features, such as high altitudes to promote the flavor and taste of the tea. and land that can offer plenty of shade in the form of other trees and vegetation to keep the plants cool and fresh . Together these conditions contribute to the production of the wide range of high-quality teas that are in such huge demand among the world’s consumers. There is green tea, jasmine tea, earl grey tea, peppermint tea, tea to help you sleep, tea to promote healing and tea to relieve stress; but above all. tea is a social drink that seems to suit the palates and consumption habits of human beings in general.


3. Sample Text 3

Conflicts between parents and their children at bedtime are common.. For adults, sleep is welcome rest. For children, it’s lost time, time when they could be doing something fun like playing computer games or finishing a drawing of their cartoon hero. So the youngsters often resist it. And in families where both parents work, the nightly ritual of putting the children to bed can be even more of a tussle. Most parents don’t get home until at least seven in the evening, and there’s little slack between bath, dinner, homework and bedtime.

Whatever the situation, a growing child still requires a decent amount of sleep, and for young schoolchildren and toddlers, that’s between 10 and 12 hours a night. But what happens when children fight it every step of the way, from taking a bath to putting on pyjamas to getting into bed? When they refuse to sleep alone in bed or wake up repeatedly, or need to be rocked for an hour before nodding off? It’s usually not hard to tell when a child doesn’t get enough sleep.

Although many parents are consistent, the routine they adopt only results in long, wearying nights. They become caught in a trap they have inadvertently created. Their children rely on them to help get to sleep. Parents cajole, sing to them, rock them, rub their back — only to have the little ones wake the moment they tiptoe out of the room. Quality time disappears, tempers are short, and bedtime becomes a civil war.




EXERCISE-1                                                                                                                                                        EXERCISE-3