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The history of marketers seeking the advice of physicists is a short one, but an understanding of the Theory of Resonance may give communications experts the edge. Resonance Theory explains the curious phenomenon of how very small pebbles dropped into a pond can create bigger waves than a large brick. The brick makes a decent splash but its ripples peter out quickly. A tiny pebble dropped into the same pond, followed by another, then another, then another, all timed carefully, will create ripples that build into small waves.
As Dr Carlo Contaldi, a physicist at Imperial College London, explains, a small amount of energy committed at just the right intervals – the ‘natural frequency’ – creates a cumulatively large effect.
Media consultant Paul Bay believes that just as with pebbles in a pond, a carefully choreographed and meticulously timed stream of communication will have a more lasting effect than a sporadic big splash during prime time TV breaks. Innocent is testament to the power of pebbles. Until last year, the maker of smoothies had never advertised on TV, instead drip-feeding the market with endless ingenious marketing ploys – from annotating its drinks labels with quirky messages to hosting its own music festival, Fruitstock. The company sent a constant stream of messages rather than communicating through the occasional big and expensive noise.
So whether you’re trying to make waves in the laboratory or in the media, the people in white coats would advise a little and often. A big budget is not the prerequisite of success.

Sample Answer

Resonance theory, which explains that very small pebbles dropped into a pond can create bigger waves than a large brick, could also be applied to media and a carefully choreographed and meticulously timed stream of communication will create a more cumulative and lasting effect than a big occasional propaganda.


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New Caledonia a cluster of islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It is some 1,500 km east of Australia and the same distance north of New Zealand, just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. The main island, known as Grand Terre, is home to over 160,000 people – over 80% of the population of this French colony.

New Caledonia’s economy is based mainly on tourism and mining. About 25% of the world’s known nickel resources are found in New Caledonia. There are also significant deposits of cadmium, gold, and silver. In recent decades, the mining industry has been down and tourism is becoming increasingly integral part of the economy. The islands attracts many wind surfers, scuba divers, and snorkelers.

The capital city, Noumea, has a distinctly French ambience and offers many shops, museums, and restaurants with various French, Indonesian, Chinese, Italian, Mexican, and Japanese food. The botanical and zoological gardens in Noumea are first rate. The Noumea Aquarium, which is renowned for its tropical fish, fluorescent corals and nautili, is also worth seeing.

A range of accommodations are available throughout the territory. You five-star hotels/resorts or simple tribal lodgings in Melanesian villages. Though French is the official language island there are about 30 local languages, English is also widely spoken in areas which are heavily touristed.


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It is always attractive to do something interesting and to do it as well as possible, but serious injury or an unaccountable loss of form quickly halts the progress of many a young sportsman. A handful of top professionals can afford a house in London, another in the country, and a third on the French Riviera, as well as a Rolls-Royce and a yacht in the Bahamas, but most professional players just manage to gain a bare living from their sport. Outdoor life can be delightful except when the prevalent weather conditions are rain, wind, snow, fog or ice. It is flattering to hear one’s name chanted with acclaim by thousands on the terraces but crowds are fickle and soon forget, once time takes its toll of muscle and mind. Tommy Lawton, the football hero of the forties, spent his later years in poverty, forgotten by all but a small band of his closest friends.
Sportsmen at the height of their profession travel the world and visit exotic places. The English cricket team may spend its winters in Australian summers and the Wimbledon women champions may spend the year bathed in sunshine, but their own social lives are disrupted and leisure hours have to be sacrificed to hard, exhausting practice. All professional sportsmen must adhere to strict training schedules to maintain their physical fitness; their lives are devoted to keeping the body in peak condition by exhausting exercise combined with a strict regime of self-discipline and moderation in food and drink.